Thursday, February 13, 2020

History and development of international law Essay

History and development of international law - Essay Example Despite existence of the political, global and territorial differences the whole world is considered as a global village and such concept mainly enhances the idea of universal brotherhood. At the same time in the context of trade, cultural intercourse, the idea of globalization plays a major part. In this context it needs mentioning that no matter how much the globalization aspect seems positive and flawless but at the same time it includes several lacunas. In this global society also the superior nations are finding an opportunity to show their aggression, to inflict oppressive approaches towards the other nations, their people and their economy. The rate of crime has also increased to a great extent and most of the criminal, after committing the criminal deeds flee to other nations to seek shelter. As administrative system of a particular nation does not have the power to exercise the hold over other jurisdictions, the fear of being caught is reduced to a great extent for those cri minals. At the same time economic aggression is also taking a brutal shape. According to modern international treaties in the post World War II situation it has not been possible for the nations to exaggerate the power of politics to express their imperialistic mentality. Thus, those nations have adopted the procedure of economic aggression through which a superior nation can enjoy economic hold over the other nation through trade relationship. Thus, the importance has also been realized by legal scholars that there must be some kind of restraints that prevent one nation to become havoc over the other. These are some of the typical situation; rather problems at the international level that generated the emergence of this new discipline of legal jurisdiction: International Law. Legal and scholars of jurisprudence have attempted to provide definition of the International Law in different

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Exotic Flowers Ltd Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Exotic Flowers Ltd - Coursework Example The negative cash flows at the end of each month are a worrying sign for any business but these can be financed by either some short-term financing or long-term financing method. The short-term financing method would include the small bank loans such as overdraft facilities offered by the banking institutions to its clients on a regular basis. Through the overdraft facility, the bank offers some amount to its client and that amount has to be paid off by the client within a short span of time usually 12 months. The long-term financing would include a loan which would be repayable after a long period of time usually 10 years or more but this sort of long term financing would cost more because the banks or the financial institutions would charge higher interest for a longer period of time. The best suitable financing mode for Exotic Flowers Ltd would be to use short term financing facilities such as overdraft facility that would hold little interest charge and the company would be able to repay it as soon as they end up having a positive cash flow. Based on the cash flow results, Adam and Tom should continue with the proposed plan of starting Exotic Flowers Ltd even though the business gives a negative cash flow in the opening year of the business. The business turns into a profitable venture in the second year of operation and the profits are considered to grow at a good rate. This growth in the profit and the revenue suggests that the market for the flower business is a very profitable and growing market and until and unless any stiff competition is faced, the company would grow extensively. The negative balances in the opening year of the business operation and the first month of the second year would have to be financed through short term

Friday, January 24, 2020

Euthanasia Essay example -- essays research papers fc

LEGALIZATION OF PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE I. Beginning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. â€Å" Whose life is it, anyway?† These were the words of the late Sue Rodrigues, a   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  high-profile, terminally-ill resident of British Columbia, Canada, who suffered   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  from ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease). She was helped to commit suicide by a   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  physician in violation of Canadian Law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. Most people in North America die what may be called a bad death. One study   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  found that â€Å" More often than not, patients died in pain, their desires concerning   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  treatment neglected, after spending 10 days or more in the intensive care unit. †   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  C. I believe that because so many people are dying so painfully, there are more reasons   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  or physician-assisted suicide to be legal than not. II. Middle   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. Physician-Assisted Suicide is:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1. a form of euthanasia in which a doctor gives access to a person the means to kill him   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  or herself   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. A Physician is:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1. a doctor   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  C. Steps in the process and methods of Physician-Assisted Suicide   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1. There are three ways:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a. One method is Dr. Jack Kevorkian’s â€Å"Suicide Machine. In this process,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  the patient must first activate it by pushing a button. Then, three solutions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  are injected in order; first, a harmless saline, then, a sleep-inducing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ative, and finally the lethal drug.   &n... ...Home Page. 5 May 1998   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . Remmelink Report, The. 1990-1991. . Robinson, Bruce A. Home Page.1 Jan. 2000   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . â€Å"Saga of Dr. Jack, The.† 21 Mar. 2000   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . â€Å"Self-Deliverance: New Technology.† ERGO! . 1 Dec. 1999.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . Simon, Melissa. Home Page . Walker, Richard. A Right To Die?. New York, New York: Franklin Watts, 1996. Weiss, Ann E. Bioethics: Dilemmas in Modern Medicine. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. â€Å"When Death is Our Physician.† Ultimate, Pro-Life Resource List. Dec. 1999   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . Yount, Lisa. Issues in Biomedical Ethics. San Diego, California: Lucent Books, 1998.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Islam Death and Burial Essay

When a Muslim knows that they are dying relatives and friends are sent for; these people gather around the bed. The dying person must then ask for forgiveness from God and their loved ones. If possible, the last word spoken or heard by a dying Muslim is ‘God’, this is also the first word heard by a Muslim, just after they are born. As soon as possible, after the person has died, friends and family must give the body a final ritual washing and pray. Those people chosen to wash the body must be of the same sex and a close member of the family. This ritual washing can either take place in a mosque, in the home or in a community facility. After this washing has taken place the body is anointed with spices or scents, and then wrapped in clean, white, unstitched cloth from head to toe. The amount of cloth differs from male to female; men are covered in three pieces of cloth and five for a woman. During this procedure incense must be burnt. The body is now washed and dressed appropriately and is carried on foot to the chosen site for burial. Muslims often have their own cemeteries or small plots of land for burying the dead, for the simple reason that the body’s head must be facing makkah when placed in the ground. Muslim prefer not to bury the dead in a coffin, so not to waste valuable wood, the body is often advised to be placed in a coffin to follow special health regulations. There is no difference in how the corpse is dressed, whether the person was rich or poor, important or humble in death and in Allah’s eyes they are the same. No expenses are to be made at the funeral. The funeral must be simple; leaders do not have a special cemetery, but the same funeral as others of less importance. While the body is being lowered into the ground the mourners say the following: ‘In the name of God We commit you to the earth, according to the Way of the Prophet of God.’ The mourners then sprinkle down a little earth while saying: ‘We created you from it, and return you to it, and from it we will raise you a second time.’ (Surah 20:55) The body is then covered up with remaining earth. The money the family would otherwise spend on a tombstone is given to charity. There is to be no other writing on the grave except the person’s name. Mourning is very strict after a Muslim funeral, mourning can last for a few days or up to forty days during this time the family must not attend any happy parties or celebrations, even weddings. On the seventh and fortieth days there are some time special meals held for the friends and family. Widows are allowed to mourn for four months and ten days, they must not remarry in this period but are able to afterwards. While the family are mourning friends often bring food to offer support and to comfort the family with prayers. Islam does not discourage grieving which it considers a mercy from God. Even the Prophet Muhammad wept when his infant son Ibrahim, the only son born to his wife Miriam, died. He said, â€Å"The eyes shed tears and the heart feels pain, but we utter only what pleases our God. O Ibrahim! We are aggrieved at your demise.† The Prophet also wept when his granddaughter died. Then the Prophet said to his followers, â€Å"This weeping is the mercy that God has placed in the hearts of his servants.† ‘God fixes the time-span for all things. It is He who causes both laughter and grief; it is He who causes people to die and to be born; it is He who causes male and female; it is He who will re-create us anew.’ (surah 53:42-47) ‘When a person dies his deeds come to an end except in respect of three matters which are left behind: a continuing charity, knowledge which still brings benefit, and righteous offspring to pray for him. (Hadith) ‘It is Allah who gives you life, then gives you death; then He will gather you together for the day of judgement.’ (surah 45.26) These verses would help to encourage a Muslim to have faith in where their loved ones are and that one day they will be rejoined, on the day of judgement. To remind them that life is a gift and only Allah can decide when some one will born and when they will die. After grieving Muslims are comforted from their belief that on the day of judgement they will be reunited with the ones they loved and lost. Muslims believe that throughout their lives they have two angels with them and watching them, keeping a record of their good and bad deeds. This book of deeds will then be handed over to Allah on judgement day. Allah will decide whether they are truly sorry for the bad they have done and if so reward them in heaven. Here is a description of Paradise and Hell found in the Qur’an, ‘On that day, there will be joyful faces of people in the garden of delights. A gushing fountain shall be there and soft couches with goblets placed before them, silk cushions and rich carpets.’ ‘On that day, there will be downcast faces of broken and worn out, burnt by scorching fire and drinking from a boiling fountain. Their only food will be bitter thorns.’ Some people don’t believe in life after death other people don’t understand and do not care whether there is life after death at all, Muslims are positive that all life belongs to Allah and one day he will return, from this belief they can take happiness with remembering that their dead friend is going on to a better place where they can be closer to Allah, and that one day they will join them. Not to care about life after death is illogical, we all know that humans die. ‘Does Man think that we shall not assemble his bones? Yes, surely, yes-We are able to restore his finger-prints.’ The parting may seen long for the people currently left behind, these people carry out family festivals each year to remember the dead and pray regularly, this keeps drawing them close to their lost ones and Allah. A Muslim also does not look at death as final. In fact, the term used for death is Intekal (crossing over to the next and eternal life). To the Muslim, death is simply the return of the soul to Him who gave it, the last stage of the journey from earth to God. Parents may request that a dying infant or one who has died be turned to face the holy city of Mecca. That way, the infant may begin the journey home to god. Muslims believe that children go straight to heaven, if a parent has lost a child some say it is their ticket to heaven and that it is a blessing in disguise, they find comfort in believing that in heaven Muhammad (peace be upon him) is sitting under a tree surrounded by children, Allah asks these children â€Å"what can I do for you know† the children then answer â€Å"bring my mum and dad.† In the Qur’an life after death is not described in a spiritual sense, rather in a physical way, they bury the dead bodies quickly before they start to decay. This is the reason why Muslims do not burn corpses or have them cremated. They believe that every one will be raised back to life again on the day of judgement (not the souls but their bodies). Life and death, therefore, are both integral parts of the Muslim way of life and their views on death have implications on how they live day to day. Death is not the end but follows on from this life in a natural way and Allah chooses the time of death for each person and will choose what happens in the afterlife.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Biography of Pablo Escobar, Colombian Drug Kingpin

Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (December 1, 1949–December 2, 1993) was a Colombian drug lord and the leader of one of the most powerful criminal organizations ever assembled. He was also known as The King of Cocaine. Over the course of his career, Escobar made billions of dollars, ordered the murders of hundreds of people, and ruled over a personal empire of mansions, airplanes, a private zoo, and his own army of soldiers and hardened criminals. Fast Facts: Pablo Escobar Known For: Escobar ran the Medellà ­n drug cartel, one of the largest criminal organizations in the world.Also Known As: Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria, The King of CocaineBorn: December 1, 1949 in Rionegro, ColombiaParents: Abel de Jesà ºs Dari Escobar Echeverri and Hemilda de los Dolores Gaviria Berrà ­oDied: December 2, 1993 in Medellà ­n, ColombiaSpouse: Maria Victoria Henao (m.  1976)Children: Sebastià ¡n Marroquà ­n  (born  Juan Pablo Escobar Henao), Manuela Escobar 1:29 Watch Now: 8 Fascinating Facts About Pablo Escobar Early Life Escobar was born on December 1, 1949, into a lower-middle-class family and grew up in Medellà ­n, Colombia. As a young man, he was driven and ambitious, telling friends and family that he wanted to be the president of Colombia someday. He got his start as a street criminal. According to legend, Escobar would steal tombstones, sandblast the names off of them, and resell them to crooked Panamanians. Later, he moved up to stealing cars. It was in the 1970s that he found his path to wealth and power: drugs. He would buy coca paste in Bolivia and Peru, refine it, and transport it for sale in the United States. Rise to Power In 1975, a local Medellà ­n drug lord named Fabio Restrepo was murdered, reportedly on the orders of Escobar himself. Stepping into the power vacuum, Escobar took over Restrepo’s organization and expanded his operations. Before long, Escobar  controlled all organized crime in Medellà ­n and was responsible for as much as 80 percent of the cocaine  transported into the United States. In 1982, he was elected to Colombia’s Congress. With economic, criminal, and political power, Escobar’s rise was complete. In 1976, Escobar married 15-year-old Maria Victoria Henao Vellejo, and they would later have two children, Juan Pablo and Manuela. Escobar was famous for his extramarital affairs and tended to prefer underage girls. One of his girlfriends, Virginia Vallejo, went on to become a famous Colombian television personality. In spite of his affairs, he remained married to Marà ­a Victoria until his death. Narcoterrorism As the leader of the Medellà ­n Cartel, Escobar quickly became legendary for his ruthlessness, and an increasing number of  politicians, judges, and policemen publicly opposed him. Escobar had a way of dealing with his enemies: he called it plata o plomo (silver or lead). If a politician, judge, or policeman got in his way, he would almost always first attempt to bribe him or her. If that didn’t work, he would order the person killed, occasionally including the victims family in the hit. The exact number of men and women killed by Escobar is unknown, but it certainly goes well into the hundreds and possibly into the thousands. Social status did not matter to Escobar; if he wanted you out of the way, hed get you out of the way. He ordered the assassination of presidential candidates and was even rumored to be behind the 1985 attack on the Supreme Court, carried out by the 19th of April insurrectionist movement, in which several Supreme Court justices were killed. On November 27, 1989, Escobar’s cartel planted a bomb on Avianca flight 203, killing 110 people. The target, a presidential candidate, was not actually on board. In addition to these high-profile assassinations, Escobar  and his organization were responsible for the deaths of countless magistrates, journalists, policemen, and even criminals inside his own organization. Height of His Power By the mid-1980s, Escobar was one of  the most powerful men in the world, and Forbes magazine listed him as the seventh richest. His empire included an army of soldiers and criminals, a private zoo, mansions  and apartments all over Colombia, private airstrips and planes for drug transport, and personal wealth reported to be in the neighborhood of $24 billion. Escobar could order the murder of anyone, anywhere, anytime. He was a brilliant criminal, and he knew that he would be safer if the common people of Medellà ­n loved him. Therefore, he spent millions on parks, schools, stadiums, churches, and even housing for the poorest of Medellà ­n’s inhabitants. His strategy worked—Escobar was beloved by the common people, who saw him as a local boy who had done well and was giving back to his community. Legal Troubles Escobar’s first serious run-in with the law came in 1976  when he and some of his associates were caught returning from a drug run to Ecuador. Escobar ordered the killing of the arresting officers, and the case was soon dropped. Later, at the height of his power, Escobar’s wealth and ruthlessness made it almost impossible for Colombian authorities to bring him to justice. Any time an attempt was made to limit his power, those responsible were bribed, killed, or otherwise neutralized. The pressure was mounting, however, from the United States government, which wanted Escobar extradited to face drug charges. He had to use all of his power to prevent extradition. In 1991, due to increasing pressure from the U.S., the Colombian government  and Escobar’s lawyers came up with an interesting arrangement. Escobar would turn himself in and serve a five-year jail term. In return, he would build his own prison and would not be extradited to the United States or anywhere else. The prison, La Catedral, was an elegant fortress which featured a Jacuzzi, a waterfall, a full bar, and a soccer field. In addition, Escobar had negotiated the right to select his own â€Å"guards.† He ran his empire from inside La Catedral, giving orders by telephone. There were no other prisoners in La Catedral. Today, La Catedral is in ruins, having been hacked to pieces by treasure hunters looking for hidden Escobar loot. On the Run Everyone knew that Escobar was still running his operation from La Catedral, but in July 1992 it became known that the drug kingpin had ordered some disloyal underlings brought to his â€Å"prison,† where they were tortured and killed. This was too much for even the Colombian government, and plans were made to transfer Escobar to a standard prison. Fearing he might be extradited, Escobar escaped and went into hiding. The U.S. government and local police ordered a massive manhunt. By late 1992, there were two organizations searching for him: the Search Bloc, a special, U.S.-trained Colombian task force, and â€Å"Los Pepes,† a shadowy organization of Escobar’s enemies made up of family members of his victims and financed by Escobar’s main business rival, the Cali Cartel. Death On December 2, 1993, Colombian security forces—using U.S. technology—located Escobar hiding in a home in a middle-class section of Medellà ­n. The Search Bloc moved in, triangulated his position, and attempted to bring him into custody. Escobar fought back, however, and there was a shootout. Escobar was eventually gunned down as he attempted to escape on the rooftop. Although he was also shot in the torso and leg, the fatal wound passed through his ear, leading many to believe that Escobar committed suicide. Others believe one of the Colombian policemen fired the bullet. Legacy With Escobar gone, the Medellà ­n Cartel quickly lost power to its rival, the Cali Cartel, which remained dominant until the Colombian government shut it down in the mid-1990s. Escobar is still remembered by the poor of Medellà ­n as a benefactor. He has been the subject of numerous books, movies, and television series, including Narcos and Escobar: Paradise Lost. Many people remain fascinated by the master criminal, who once ruled one of the largest drug empires in history. Sources Gaviria, Roberto Escobar, and David Fisher. The Accountants Story: inside the Violent World of the Medellin Cartel. Grand Central Pub., 2010.Vallejo, Virginia, and Megan McDowell. Loving Pablo, Hating Escobar. Vintage Books, 2018.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Project Management Methodologies For Project Managers

Project Methodology There are numerous project management methodologies available for project managers to choose from. The best process or methodology must take into consideration the unique aspects of the project, including factors such as staff size and system criticality, as determined by the project manager and the core team (Cockburn, 2000). From my vantage point, the primary concern is the team member buy-in and keeping the process participatory, while managing the interaction, communication and contributions from the various team members towards the fulfillment of the objective. It also goes without says, that meeting time, scope, costs and performance, and quality standards are of the utmost importance; to guarantee that the final†¦show more content†¦Project Scope Planning Resources One of the premiere sources available to help understand and define the project scope is A Guide to the Project Management Book of Knowledge, (PMBOK Guide). The PMBOK Guide details the scope management process which includes: Scope Planning, Scope Definition, Creating the WBS, Scope Verification and Scope Controls. Because most project failures are attributed to ill-defined scope, this process management criteria helps to ensure that the prerequisite steps or works gets completed, which in turns help to increase the project’s ultimate success rate. There are also numerous scope management templates and simulation programs hosed online such as and These online sources provide a step by step approach, outlining considerations that should be factored into the creation of one’s scope management plan. The simulation software that is available through the Harvard Business Review, which is helpful because it allows the user to assume the role of a project manager. The end-user is tasked to complete a specific project using the guidelines outlined in the simulation software. Project Phase Project management phases include Project Initiation, Defining Planning, Launch Execution, Performance Control and Project Closure. According to (2015), the project initiation phases involves the evaluation of the â€Å"benefits† or the

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Humanity of the Primitive in Heart of Darkness, Dialect...

Humanity of the Primitive in Heart of Darkness, Dialect of Modernism and Totem and Taboo The ways in which a society might define itself are almost always negative ways. We are not X. A society cannot exist in a vacuum; for it to be distinct it must be able to define itself in terms of the other groups around it. These definitions must necessarily take place at points of cultural contact, the places at which two societies come together and arrive at some stalemate of coexistence. For European culture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries this place of contact—this new culture by which to define itself—came from Africa, from those primitive cultures whose society was being studied and in some ways appreciated†¦show more content†¦The European mind at the fringes of civilisation, when confronted with this Otherness, cannot settle on one or the other of these alternatives. European reactions to other cultures tend to oscillate between these two poles, and thus the same culture can seem simple, authentic, concrete, or, on the other hand, odd, uncanny, and arbitrary (ibid.). While this paradigm of shifting viewpoints is exemplified by Marlow in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness, it seems to find its resolution in Sigmund Freuds assertion that in many ways the modern man is the primitive man. Marlows oscillation between viewpoints is almost startling in its rapidity. On his very first meeting with the natives of the Congo, he swings from one pole to the other in only a few sentences: They shouted, sang; their bodies streamed with perspiration; they had faces like grotesque masks—these chaps; but they had bone, muscle, a wild vitality, an intense energy of movement that was as natural and true as the surf along the coast. They wanted no excuse for being there. They were a great comfort to look at. (Conrad, 17) So in the space of three sentences, the natives go from being grotesque masks to chaps who were as natural and true as the surf along the coast. Marlow is having a great deal of trouble making up his mind over the Africans, and he never really comes to any conclusion. While he is staying in the down river station, Marlow